Russian alphabet

The modern Russian alphabet consists of 33 letters

Russian keyboard layout
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The Russian alphabet is as follows:

Letter

Name

IPA

Sounds like:

Russian example

Аа

[ä]

/ä/

‘a' in ‘father’. The mouth is open a bit wider than in English.

два [dva]

(two)

Бб

[bɛ]

/b/

‘b' in ‘bad’. Avoid a puff of air after the sound.   

без [byez]

(without)   

Вв

[vɛ]

/v/

l «v» in ‘vine’.

вот [vot]

(here)

Гг

[ɡɛ]

/ɡ/

«g» in ‘go’.

год [god]

(year)

Дд

[dɛ]   

/d/

‘d’ in ‘do’. The tip of the tongue touches the lower teeth when pronouncing ‘d’.

да [da]

(yes)

Ее

[je]

/je/

‘ye’ in ‘yes’ or like ‘e’ as in ebony. Pronounced with preceding ‘y’ in the beginning of a word or after a vowel.

не [nye]

(not)

Ёё

[jo]

/jo/

‘yo’ in ‘yo-yo’ or like ‘o’ depending on the position in a word.

своё [svoyo]

(one's own, my, our)

Жж

[ʐɛ]

/ʐ/   

‘s’ in pleasure.

жук [zhuk]

(bug)

Зз

[zɛ]

/z/

‘z in zoo. Do not confuse this letter with the number (3).

за [za]

(behind)   

Ии

[i]   

/i/

‘e’ in ‘me’.

или [ili]

(or)

Йй

[i ˈkrätkəɪ]

/j/

‘y’ in ‘toy’.

мой [moy]

(my)

Кк   

[kä]   

/k/

‘k’ in ‘kiss’. Avoid the puff of air after the sound.

кто [kto]

(who)   

Лл

[ɛl]

/l/

‘l’ in ‘lamp’.

ли [li]

(whether)

Мм

[ɛm]   

/m/

‘m’ in ‘map’

чем [chem]

(than)

Нн   

[ɛn]   

/n/

’n’ in ‘not’. The tip of the tongue touches the lower teeth when pronouncing ‘n’.

но [no]

(but)

Оо   

[о]   

/o/

‘o’ in more (w/o the 'r' sound). Protrude and round your lips a bit more than in English.

In unstressed positions, it sounds like ‘u’ in ‘under’, but more lax.

он [on]

(he)

Пп

[pɛ]   

/p/

‘p’ in ‘pet’. Avoid a puff of air after the sound.

под [pod]

(under)

Рр

[ɛr]

/r/

‘r’ in ‘rest’ but rolled.

при [pri]

(attached to)

Сс   

[ɛs]

/s/

‘s’ in ‘see’. The tip of the tongue touches the lower teeth.

если [yesli]

(if)

Тт   

[tɛ]

/t/

‘t’ in ‘tool’. The tip of the tongue touches the lower teeth.

тот [tot]

(that)

Уу   

[u]   

/u/

‘oo’ in ‘boot’. Pronounced shorter than in English, with lips more rounded and protruded.

уже [uzhe]

(already)

Фф   

[ɛf]

/f/

‘f’ in ‘face’.

форма [forma]

(form)   

Хх   

[xä]

/x/

‘ch’ in ‘loch’ as pronounced in Scottish manner.

хорошо [horosho]

(well)

Цц   

[tsɛ]

/t͡s/

‘ts’ in ‘sits’.

конец [konyets]

(end)   

Чч   

[tɕe]

/t͡ɕ/

‘ch’ in ‘chip’. Do not confuse this letter with the number (4).

четыре [chtirye]

(four)   

Шш   

[ʂä]

/ʂ/   

‘sh’ in ‘sharp’, like the German ‘stehen’ (voiceless retroflex fricative), crush but with the tongue farther back in the mouth.

ваш [vash]

(yours)   

Щщ   

[ɕɕæ]

/ɕɕ/

sheer’ (sometimes instead pronounced as in ‘fresh-cheese’) (a voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative). Place your tongue higher and more forward in the mouth than in English.

ещё [yeshchyo]

(yet, still)

Ъъ   

[ˈtvʲɵrdɨj znäk]   

silent, prevents palatalization of the preceding consonant   

объект [ob.yekt]

(object)   

Ыы   

[ɨ]   

[ɨ]

silly (close central unrounded vowel)

ты [tɨ]

(you)

Ьь   

[ˈmʲæxʲkʲɪj znäk]

/ ʲ/

silent, palatalizes the preceding consonant (if it is phonologically possible)   

весь [vye(sh)]

(all)

Ээ   

[ɛ]

/ɛ/   

‘e’ in ‘met‘. Try opening the mouth a bit wider.

это [eto]

(this, that)

Юю   

[ju]

/ju/

‘u’ in ‘use’. In some cases it sounds like ‘oo’ in ‘oodles’.

юг [yug]

(south)

Яя   

[ja]

/ja/

‘ya’ in yard. In some cases it sounds like ‘a’ in ‘after’.

себя [syebya]

(myself)